Dostoevsky Fedor Mikhailovich (1821-1881) - an outstanding Russian writer, public figure, philosopher and publicist.
At the end of May 1845, Fedor Dostoevsky finished his first novel, “Poor People.” The work was enthusiastically accepted by the legislators of the literary fashion of those years - Nikolai Nekrasov and Vissarion Belinsky. Nekrasov called the budding writer "new Gogol" and published a novel in his almanac "Petersburg Collection".
At the end of April 1849, the writer was arrested; he spent 8 months in the Peter and Paul Fortress. The court recognized him “one of the most important criminals for failing to spread the letter of the writer Belinsky about the criminal on religion and government” and sentenced him to death. However, shortly before the execution, the Petrashevites were commuted. Fedor Dostoevsky sent to four-year hard labor in Omsk.
Fyodor Dostoevsky expressed his impressions of life in the Omsk prison in Notes from the Dead House. This work of Russian literature was one of the first to tell about the hard labor and life of prisoners, their way of life and mores.
In the following years, the author wrote the novel Humiliated and Offended, the story Nasty Joke, the journalistic essay Winter Notes on Summer Impressions, and the novel Notes from the Underground.
In the 1860–80s, Fedor Dostoevsky wrote novels, which they later called the “Great Pentateuch” - “Crime and Punishment”, “Idiot”, “Demons”, “Teenager” and “Brothers Karamazov”. All of them, except the “Teenager”, were included in the list of “100 best books of all time” according to the Norwegian Book Club and the Norwegian Nobel Institute. The novel “The Brothers Karamazov,” as he was called “the life of the great sinner, was the last work of Dostoevsky.
During his life, the work of Fyodor Dostoevsky did not find a proper understanding among his contemporaries. Only after the death of the writer, he was recognized as one of the greatest novelists, who influenced world literature, as well as philosophical movements and journalism.
Fyodor Dostoevsky made a real revolution in literature, making it the subject of knowledge of the human soul. The main theme of all the works of Dostoevsky was the fate of man, namely the fate of his soul, his path to God.
- “Poor people” - the fate of a small and useless person. the theme of the "little man", poverty, loneliness, injustice.
- "Humiliated and offended" - the continuation of the topic of poor people.
- “Crime and Punishment” - the story of spiritual death and the resurrection of one human soul, which went through all trials and acquired the meaning of being in faith and hope.
- "Idiot" - the story of a beautiful man who could not stand the blows of fate.
- "Demons" - criticism of the ideas of nihilism, which lead their carriers to spiritual destruction.
- "Teenager" - the story of soul-throwing and growing up young men.
- “The Brothers Karamazov” is the central work of Dostoevsky’s work, in which he tells the story of one family. "The Brothers Karamazov" - the result, a comprehension of the whole life of Dostoevsky. The childhood memories here are combined with the thoughts and impressions of recent years, and the images of Dmitry, Ivan and Alexei symbolize the three stages of the spiritual development of the author himself. The novel has a complex, multifaceted structure, its genre is difficult to define.
Dostoevsky portrayed in the Brothers Karamazov a generalized formula of a "mysterious Russian soul" with its desire to "forget all measure in everything," both destructive and creative. Duality, deliberate denial of faith and the need for it as a saving anchor, a mixture of egoism and self-sacrifice, the eternal wandering in captivity of false values - this is how the Russian person seems to the writer.