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Alexander Pushkin - The great Russian poet and writer, the founder of the modern literary Russian language, with whose name the Golden Age of Russian literature and poetry is associated. Alexander Pushkin began to write his first works at the age of seven. Pushkin was the first Russian writer to start earning literary work. He created not only lyric poems, fairy tales and historical prose.
Alexander Pushkin Childhood and Lyceum
Pushkin received his primary education at home. Studying was difficult for Pushkin, but soon the boy became interested in reading. The love of reading has grown into attempts to create your own texts.
At the Lyceum, Alexander Pushkin continued to read and write texts in French. In Russian, Alexander Pushkin composed small epigrams and messages, and also outlined the structure of a future autobiography. The young author was so fascinated by literary work that the ideas of the works were born one after another for several months in advance.
The first major success was waiting for Pushkin in 1815 during the winter translation exam - the 15-year-old lyceum student read his poem “Memoirs in Tsarskoye Selo”. Gabriel Derzhavin attended the exam, he was shocked by the creation of the young poet.
Service and career of Pushkin
After six years of study, Pushkin plunged headlong into the social life of the capital and, as a well-known and honored author, fell into the society of St. Petersburg writers.
In 1819, Pushkin joined the literary and theatrical society Green Lamp at the Decembrist Union of Welfare. Its participants promoted freedom-loving ideas.
Sharp political works brought the wrath of Alexander I, and the emperor decided to exile Pushkin to Siberia or to the Solovetsky monastery. However, Nikolai Karamzin stood up for the poet: in the service of Pushkin he was transferred from the capital to the South. Before leaving, in 1820, Alexander Pushkin finished the poem Ruslan and Lyudmila.
In the spring of 1820, Alexander Pushkin went to Chisinau, to the office of the chief trustee of the colonists of the Southern Territory. On the way to a new duty station, the poet became very ill. To improve his health, Pushkin went first to the Caucasus, then to the Crimea. Travel impressions from the south of the empire were later reflected in some of his works.
At this time, books of the poet began to be published in St. Petersburg - Ruslan and Lyudmila, the Caucasian Prisoner, and the Bakhchisarai Fountain. It was with them that Pushkin began his professional career: he was the first writer in Russia to earn literary work.
Meanwhile, in Moscow in 1824, the police opened a letter to Pushkin: he wrote to Küchelbecker about his enthusiasm for “atheistic teachings”. For such statements, Pushkin was sent to this link to a family estate in the village of Mikhailovsky in the Pskov province.
Pushkin in Mikhailovsky
In Mikhailovsky, Pushkin led a secluded lifestyle.
Talking with the nanny Arina Rodionovna became the only entertainment for Pushkin. Her tales, as the poet said, corrected the shortcomings of French education. He wrote down stories of magical stories, and later used them in his works.
The reclusive lifestyle did not become destructive for Pushkin, but rather the opposite: the writer read a lot, worked, and thought about creativity. In the first Mikhailovsky autumn, he began to write Boris Godunov. This tragedy became an important stage in the work of the poet.
In 1826, the first collection of "Poems of Alexander Pushkin." The success was huge: Tom sold out in a few weeks. This year Pushkin wrote the following chapters of Eugene Onegin
September 8, 1826 Pushkin was summoned to an audience with Tsar Nicholas I. After a conversation with Nicholas I, the writer hoped to get complete freedom in his work. However, the tsar had other plans: Pushkin was to become a poet at court. The calculation did not materialize. In 1827, Pushkin wrote the poem Arion, in which he expressed fidelity to liberation ideas.
Pushkin was even forbidden to travel freely around the country and publicly read his works. Despite tight control, he continued to uphold freedom-loving ideas and dedicated the poem “Poet and Crowd” and “Poet” to this topic.
Personal life of Pushkin
In 1829, at one of the balls, Alexander Pushkin met Natalia Goncharova. The first beauty of Moscow immediately conquered Pushkin, and a few months later he made Goncharova an offer.
However, her mother referred to the young age of the girl and did not immediately give consent. The frustrated writer left Moscow for his brother in the Caucasus, where the war was at that time.
In the Caucasus, Pushkin wrote a series of poems dedicated to this region: "The Caucasus", "On the hills of Georgia lies a night haze ...", "Collapse", "Delibash" and "Monastery on Kazbek". In 1830, the writer returned to Moscow and again made an offer to Natalia Goncharova. This time, the parents blessed the couple.
In 1831, Alexander Pushkin was accepted into the service as a historiographer to write "The History of Peter". But the writer was more interested in the biography of the rebel Emelyan Pugachev. Pushkin planned to create an epic novel about this era. First, he collected information in the archives, then went to the areas of the Pugachev uprising - the Volga region and the Urals, to reliably describe the events of that time.
After the expedition, Alexander Pushkin left for Boldino. In the family estate, he worked on the scientific work “The History of Pugachev”, wrote “The Bronze Horseman”, “Angelo”, “The Queen of Spades”, “The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish”, “The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights”.
The duel and death of Alexander Pushkin
On February 8, 1837, Alexander Pushkin's duel with Georges Dantes, the main intriguer, discrediting the reputation of Natalia Pushkina, took place. During the fight, the poet was seriously injured and died two days later. Alexander Pushkin was buried in the territory of the Svyatogorsky monastery of the Pskov province.