Russian alphabet

Russian alphabet: letters and sounds

The modern Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters. The alphabet in its current representation has existed since 1942. In fact, the year 1918 the year of the formation of the modern Cyrillic alphabet - then it consisted of 32 Russian letters (without the letter ё). The origin of the alphabet, according to historical documents, is associated with the names Cyril and Mefodius and dates back to the 9th century AD. From the moment of its origin to 1918, the alphabet has repeatedly changed, including and excluding signs. At one time, it totaled more than 40 letters.

Studies have shown that for the development of speech skills, the main rule is to constantly listen to speech in the russian language. Russian audiobooks are a great way to improve your knowledge of a foreign language, expand your vocabulary.

33 Russian letters

russian alphabet letters

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Cyrillic Russian characters

Russian alphabet, a set of russian letters in the prescribed sequence that creates the written and printed form of the national Russian language. It includes 33 letters: «а», «б», «в», «г», «д», «е», «ё», «ж», «з», «и», «й», «к», «л», «м», «н», «о», «п», «р», «с», «т», «у», «ф», «х», «ц», «ч», «ш», «щ», «ъ», «ы», «ь», «э», «ю», «я».

All Russian letters (except «ъ», «ы», «ь») are used in two versions - uppercase letters and lowercase letters. In printed form, the variants of most letters are graphically identical (they differ only in size, for example, «Г» – «г», «О» – «о», «У» – «у»; ср., од­на­ко, «Б» и «б»), in writing in many cases, the spelling of uppercase and lowercase letters differ from each other.

The Russian language has six russian cases: nominative, accusative, prepositional, genitive, dative, and instrumental.

Number of russian letters


How many cyrillic characters of the Russian alphabet ?

  • There are 33 letters (russian characters) in the Russian alphabet. 10 vowel letters: а, э, ы, у, о, я, е, ё, ю, и + 21 consonants

Vowels and consonants russian letters


How many vowels and consonants are in the Russian alphabet?

  • 10 vowels + 21 consonants + 2 do not mean sound

russian numbers

Among the letters of the Russian alphabet there are:

    • 10 vowels: а, о, у, ы, э, я, е, ё, ю, и;
    • 21 consonant: б, в, г, д, й, ж, з, к, л, м, н, п, р, с, т, ф, х, ц, ч, ш, щ;
    • 2 letters that do not mean sounds: ь, ъ

The letter means sound. Compare: «ka», «el'» - the names of letters, [k], [l] - sounds.

Uppercase and lowercase

Which letters are uppercase and which are lowercase?

Letters are uppercase (or uppercase) and lowercase:

      • A, B, C ... U, U, Z - uppercase letters,
      • a, b, c ... uh, u, i - lowercase letters.

Sometimes they say: capital and small letters. But this wording is incorrect, as it means the size of the letter, and not its shape.

The first word of the text is written with a capital letter, as well as the first word after the period, ellipsis, question and exclamation marks, ending a sentence. Names, patronymics, surnames, pseudonyms, nicknames are written with a capital letter, for example: The most popular Russian names and surnames.

Russian letters PDF

The style of writing Russian letters depends on the font and may differ significantly.

On our site you can download pdf Russian letters for each letter of the Russian alphabet there is a separate page

Russian letters download PDF (The worksheets are in PDF format. on each sheet a capital and small letter).

Russian letters

Type Russian letters

Буква / letters Название / name of the letter Звук / sounds
А а [а]
Б бэ [б]
В вэ [в]
Г гэ [г]
Д дэ [д]
Е е [э] в ударной позиции или [и] в безударной
Ё ё [о] или [й'о] для йотированной
Ж жэ [ж]
З зэ [з]
И и [и]
Й и краткое [й'] (всегда мягкий)
К ка [к]
Л эл или эль [л]
М эм [м]
Н эн [н]
О о [о] в ударной позиции или [а] в безударной
П пэ [п]
Р эр [р]
С эс [с]
Т тэ [т]
У у [у]
Ф эф [ф]
Х ха [х]
Ц це [ц]
Ч че [ч'] (всегда мягкий)
Ш ша [ш]
Щ ща [щ'] (всегда мягкий)
Ъ твёрдый знак -
Ы ы [ы]
Ь мягкий знак -
Э э обратное [э]
Ю ю [у] или [й'у] для йотированной
Я я [а] или [й'а] для йотированной

Cyrillic alphabet

The Russian alphabet uses the Cyrillic script. Let the child to play and to learn the letters at the same time. Our russian toys make learn russian for kids easy and fun and children will enjoy learning Russian.

How to learn Russian alphabet

A bilingual child is the dream of many parents. Do you think your children need Russian?

Save the Russian language in a child living in America - the task of parents. This is only possible for those who are actively engaged in the intellectual development of children in their native language. How to learn russian letters?

  • communicate at home as much as possible, cover more complex topics
  • try to interest the child in Russian literature and Russian movies
  • to read and write in Russian, start by learning the Russian alphabet

We have collected the best textbooks on the Russian language and textbooks with the Russian alphabet for children. As well as games and toys to make learning Russian a fun and interesting experience. To learn the Russian alphabet in the game will help tablets, posters and educational books.

How easy is it to learn Russian alphabet?

In the shop "Colibri" you will always find primers, electronic alphabets, as well as words that will help your child learn to write russian letters and learn the Russian alphabet.

Russian is one of the most difficult languages ​​in the world. However, using our website, you will find the material you need and easily learn this language.

The Russian Alphabet
Russian CharacterEnglish EquivalentSoundLetter Name in Russian
А аА аLike "a" in car"ah"
Б бB bLike "b" in bat"beh"
В вV vLike "v" in van"veh"
Г гG gLike "g" in go"geh"
Д дD dLike "d" in dog"deh"
Е еYE yeLike "ye" in yet"yeh"
Ё ёYO yoLike "yo" in yonder"yo"
Ж жZh zhLike "s" in measure or pleasure
or like "g" in beige (the colour)
З зZ zLike "z" in zoo"zeh"
И иEE eeLike "ee" in see"ee"
Й йI i or Y ylike "y" in boy or toye kratkoe
К кK kLike "k" in kitten, "c" in cat. "kah"
Л лL lLike "l" in light"ehl"
М мM mLike "m" in mat"ehm"
Н нN nLike "n" in no"ehn"
О оStressed: O o
Unstressed: A a
Like "o" in bore
Like "a" in car
П пP pLike "p" in pot"peh"
Р рR rLike "r" in run (rolled)"ehr"
С сS sLike "s" in sam"ehs"
Т тT tLike "t" in tap"teh"
У уU uLike "oo" in boot"oo"
Ф фF fLike "f" in fat"ehf"
Х хH h, KH khLike "h" in hello or like
the "ch" in Scottish 'loch' or German 'Bach'
Ц цTS tsLike "ts" in bits"tseh"
Ч чCH chLike "ch" in chip"cheh"
Ш шSH sh (hard)Like "sh" in shutsha
Щ щSH sh (soft)Like "sh" in sheepschya
Ъ ъHard SignLetter before is hardtvyordiy znahk
Ы ыI iLike "i" in ill"i"
Ь ьSoft SignLetter before is softmyagkiy znahk
Э эE eLike "e" in pet"eh"
Ю юYU yuLike "u" in use or university "yoo"
Я яYA yaLike "ya" in yard."yah"

Russian alphabet pdf

Russian alphabet pdf
Russian alphabet
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